1709 – Hot air balloon demonstrated
1745 – Ewald Georg von Kleist and Pieter van Musschenbroek of Leiden invent the Leyden Jar (capacitor)
1766 – Henry Cavendish discovers Hydrogen
1775 – Watt improves steam engines by adding a condenser using half the coal or prior engines
1783 – Jacques Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world’s first hydrogen-filled balloon, the 35 cubic meter balloon was made of rubberized silk, could lift 9kg or 20lbs, and flew 21 kilometers in 45 minutes before it landed and was destroyed.
Jacques Charles and the Robert brothers launched a manned hydrogen-filled rubberized silk balloon of 380 cubic meters, it stayed aloft for 2 hours 5 minutes and traveled 36km. The balloon used sand ballast and a gas release valve for altitude control.
1785 – Jean-Pierre-François Blanchard crosses the English Channel in a hand-powered balloon
1792 – Tipu Sultan codifies the use of rocket artillery in warfare
1800 – Alessandro Volta creates the first battery
Watt’s steam engine patent expires allowing other inventors to create high-pressure steam engines
1804 – First high power steam engine pulls a train
Joseph Marie Jacquard invents the punch card-driven Jacquard loom
1806 – William Congreve’s 32-pound rockets, built for the Ordnance Department, reached a distance of 3,000 yards
1809 – Jean-Pierre-François Blanchard dies of a heart attack, his wife Sophie a professional balloonist promoted human flight until her death in 1819.
1814 – Last Frost Fair on the Thames as the little ice age came to an end, removal of Old London Bridge in 1831 allowed the tide to flow more freely with less ice accumulating as a consequence and no frost fairs were held in 1881 or 1894 despite the extreme cold
1822 – Charles Babbage completes his first difference engine
1823 – Numerous towns and cities throughout Britain were lit by gas
1824 – William Horstmann’s silk-weaving business adopts the Jacquard Loom, Horstmann’s company survives the 1837 American financial panic that wiped out many silk related businesses
1830 – The Liverpool and Manchester Railway becomes the first line to use steam power for passenger and freight trains
1831 – Michael Faraday invents the electric dynamo.
1835 – Casimir Lefaucheux patents the self-contained cardboard cartridge for firearms
1836 – Colt’s Paterson cap and ball revolver introduced
1837 – Morse develops the telegraph, the first commercial telegraph is built
1838 – Sir William Grove wrote about his developments with the First Hydrogen Fuel Cell
1839 – Charles Goodyear invents rubber vulcanization.
1844 – William Hale patents a new form of a spin-stabilized rocket which is an improvement over the Congreve rocket and used by the US Army in the Mexican-American War and the US Navy in the American Civil War.
Samuel Colt demonstrates a system of underwater mines detonated by electrical current, the government is not interested. The cost of the demonstration bankrupts Colt.
American dentist, Horace Wells demonstrates the first use of Nitrus Oxide as an anesthetic in surgery.
1845 – Great Irish Famine and potato blight lead to the death of a million people and another million emigrate from Ireland.
1846 – Wholly metallic self-contained cartridge for firearms introduced by French gunsmith Benjamin Houllier
Captain Samuel Hamilton Walker and Samuel Colt collaborate on a new revolver, Colt enlists Eli Whitney, Jr. to make the guns.
1847 – Nitroglycerine was discovered by Ascanio Sobrero in Turin
1848 – Gold discovered in California
1851 – The Great Exhibition sees demonstrations of many new technologies including Colt’s improved firearms
1852 – Jean Bernard Léon Foucault invents a gyroscope.
Henri Giffard built the Giffard dirigible or Giffard airship, a steam powered semirigid airship. The engine weighted 350 pounds, made 3 horsepower and turned the propellor 110rpm to push the 144ft long derigible 10km per hour. It flew 27km in 3 hours demonstrating turning and control along the way. The engine was not powerful enough to fly against the wind for the return trip.
1853 – Russian diplomat Yevfimiy Putyatin set up a steam engine in Japan, Tanaka Hisashige inventor and founder of Toshiba is fascinated by the machine, and goes about building his own.
1855 – Georges Audemars invents rayon.
1856 – Nikola Tesla born
1857 – Smith & Wesson produced the Model 1 Revolver using rimfire metallic cartridges
1858 – First Transatlantic telegraph cable completed, the cable burns out after a few days of slow operation
The Great Stink of London caused by human and industrial waste in the Thames leads to the creation of new sewer lines and a reduction in Cholera outbreaks.
Jean Lenoir invents an internal combustion engine.
1859 – The Carrington Event causes telegraphs in Europe and North America to fail, Auroras were seen all over the world.
1860-1861 – Pony Express delivers mail from Missouri to California until the completion of the transcontinental telegraph in late 1861
1861 – President Lincoln created the U.S. Army Civilian Balloon Corps in June 1861
Pierre Michaux invents a bicycle.
Linus Yale invents the Yale lock or cylinder lock.
The serfdom of Russian peasants was abolished by the proclamation of Tsar Alexander II in response to over 700 peasant uprisings since 1826.
Richard Jordan Gatling invents a rapid-firing multiple-barrel firearm, it used metallic cartridges, gravity feed ammunition and first saw use during the American Civil War.
1862 – James Glaisher makes 28 balloon ascents between 1862 and 1866 his observations increase our understanding of the weather
1863 – Construction of the Transcontinental Railroad begins
The American civil war begins. The war is fought over slavery and is won in part by the Union’s adoption of new technologies and a superior industrial base.
1866 – Second Transatlantic telegraph cable completed
Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.
1867 – Antiseptic Theory applied to the Practice of Surgery
The last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu steps down, the Meiji Restoration and Modernization begins in 1868.
1868 – Pharmacy Act restrict the dispensing of drugs to a certified class of professionals
1869 – Jules Verne’s Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas: A World Tour Underwater is serialized in the Magasin d’éducation et de récréation
1871 – The Imperial Russian Army orders 41,000 Smith & Wesson No. 3 Schofield revolvers in .44 caliber, the Russians reverse engineer the pistol and make copies of it in their arsenal in Tula. The Russians cancel significant portions of the S&W order which nearly bankrupts the company.
1872 – Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days published
The first commercial railway in Japan opened between Shimbashi (Tokyo) and Yokohama
First internal combustion powered airship, the engine ran off the coal gas used to lift the airship.
1873 – Colt introduces the Single Action Army revolver using a metallic cartridge
1875 – Nikola Tesla enrolls in technical school, but drops out near the end of his third year.
1876 – Lewis Howard Latimer drafts diagrams for Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone patent
1878 – Electric street lighting was first introduced to London
1879 – Lewis Howard Latimer joins U.S. Electric Lighting Company, improves filament production, and travels to England to set up factories there, Latimer teaches the entire production process to the workers in the new factory
1880 – The Weinling family made toy hydrogen balloons made of lightweight ‘goldbeater’s skin’ made from cow intestines.
1882 – Parliament passes the Electric Lighting Act and Edison opens the Pearl Street Station power plant in New York with 6 200hp dynamos
1883 – First electric powered airship using a 1.5hp Siemens motor
1884 – Lewis Howard Latimer goes to work for Thomas Edison writes the book on electric lights
1885 – Karl Benz invents the first practical automobile to be powered by an internal combustion engine.
Gottlieb Daimler invents the first gas-engined motorcycle.
1886 – Jules Verne’s Robur the Conqueror published
1888 – Nikola Tesla invents the AC motor and transformer.
1894 – The Thames froze over halting river traffic as well as road and railway freight due to snow and ice, water pipes and gas lines burst
1900 – The zeppelin was invented by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin.
1912 – Zepplin begins using Goldbeater’s skin in their airships.
1921 – British R-38 airship destroyed during testing, control problems and structural issues were to blame.
1923 – USS Shenandoah (ZR-1) was completed with a Duralumin frame and gas cells made of goldbeaters skin rubber cemented to a layer of cotton.
1927 – British airship builders describe samples of goldbeater skin and fabric gas cells as still supple and having good gas holding properties though they were ten to twelve years old.
1931 – The Hindeberg begins construction using gas cells composed of layers of gelatine sandwiched between two layers of cotton similar to Amercian airships being built at the time.
1709 – Hot air balloon demonstrated